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Numbering

Consecutive Numbering | MICR NumberingBar Code Numbering | MOD Numbering | Security Features


Consecutive Numbering

  • Consecutive numbering changes sequentially from one document to the next.
  • It can be used as a control feature to provide a distinct identity to each document.
  • The standard numbering color is red, but other colors are available. Consult your supplier for their color list.
  • Several digit sizes are available for consecutive numbering and some manufacturers of printed products may offer more than one size.
  • Alphabetic characters can also be included in the number.
  • As shown in the illustration below, a consecutive number can be printed in almost any location on a document. The number can be printed parallel or perpendicular to the rest of the copy on the document and multiple numbers can also be printed. It is best to consult with your print supplier for their capabilities as this may differ between suppliers.

 

MICR Numbering

  • MICR (Magnetic Image Character Recognition) is a special encoded number used on checks and other secure documents that enable the document to be read by MICR scanning equipment.
  • It is printed using a MICR character font as shown above.
  • Special magnetic ink is used to print the characters, making the MICR encoding recognizable by the scanner.
  • MICR numbering serves as a unique user address containing all of the information necessary for financial institutions to identify the check number, the financial institution where the account is maintained, and the account number assigned to the customer by the financial institution. The amount of the check can also be added to the end of the MICR field if the issuer has that capability.

  • The MICR encoding may consist of either a static number or a static and consecutive number. The static number contains the individual account number and the routing number of the financial organization. Consecutive MICR encoding, when added to the static number, is used to accurately sort the paper documents into a proper numerical sequence from high to low or low to high.

To see a sample document with consecutive numbering and MICR encoding, click the following link: Numbering Sample

 

Bar Code Numbering

  • Bar code numbering is used on many types of applications to code and decode information automatically.
  • It consists of bars and spaces of various sizes as shown in the sample above.
  • The bar codes can be static (the same number on each piece) or consecutive (sequential from piece to piece).
  • A number of different types of bar codes have been developed to meet the special needs of different industries. The different bar code types are known as symbologies.
  • The scanned information is received without the input errors that can occur with the use of traditional methods of entering data. Bar coding is a much more reliable, faster, and efficient method of gathering information.

For more information on bar coding, click on the link: Bar Coding

 

MOD Numbering

MOD (Modulus) or check digit numbering involves printing an additional digit to the right of a base sequential number (as indicated by the black digit in the numbers shown above). This enables the document owner to verify and control some aspect of the document; it's contents, or the intended end-user of the document. Numbering methods, such as MICR, Gothic, OCR, or Bar Code, can be to be used.

Purpose

  • To save on the costs of manually entering data into a computer system
  • Assurance of reliability in numeric data
  • Increased security in keeping individuals or entities from receiving the wrong materials

Applications

1.  Claim Forms: Insurance policies to improve administration and data entry accuracy.

2.  Control Forms:

  • Patient files insuring confidentiality or proper medication issuance
  • Inventory records
  • Freight waybills assuring destination and billing accuracy
  • Airline tickets issued to control the flight data for baggage and passengers

3.  Financial Forms:

  • Bank accounts to insure proper debits or credits
  • Travelers checks to secure proper credit and check issuance

4.  Order Forms or Sales Contracts: Agreements requiring proper identification of the end user or receiver of services and products.

5. Credit Card Forms: Security for financial transactions.

How MOD Numbering Works

MOD numbering is considered to be a "self-checking system" consisting of two parts: the base control number, or digits, such as a Gothic number 6525 with a Gothic check digit such as 3 added after the base number for a total numbering sequence appearing as 65253. Verification of the proper sequence of the check digit can be accomplished manually or by using a computer programmed for the verification procedure.

MOD numbering uses a pre-determined interval of individual digits different from the standard base 10 system. There is an unlimited number of modulus numbering systems or configurations that could be devised by any person selecting a suggested MOD numbering configuration. Two standard processes are used for MOD numbering which result in different series of control numbers being configured:

  • Divide Remainder Series (DR): Divide each base number on the document by a designated number (MOD 7 would use 7, MOD 9 would use 9, etc.) and the remainder is then used as the last digit following the base number.
  • Divide-Subtract Remainder Series (DSR): Divide each base number on the document by a designated number, (MOD 7 would use 7, MOD 9 would use 9, etc.) and the remainder is then subtracted from the divisor number (7 or 9, etc.) and the resulting number then becomes the last digit following the base number.

The most common Modulus numbering configurations used today are MOD 7, MOD 9, MOD 10, and MOD 11. MOD 7 and MOD 9 "unweighted" modulus numbering are most often used to provide a check digit, which is easiest to verify and the simplest with which to work. MOD 10 and MOD 11 "weighted" modulus numbering not only provides a more complex control number, but also provides the potential for a more secure system.

Unweighted Modulus Numbering

  • Simple mathematical calculations are used to add a continually changing last digit to a base control number for purposes of systematically applying a distinct numerical identity to a document.
  • Mechanical numbering machines used on a press or on bindery equipment can be used to apply sequenced unweighted MOD numbering configurations, since the numbering sequence can be accomplished mechanically without complex calculations.
  • Examples of unweighted MOD numbering sequences and calculations are shown below:

Unweighted MOD 7

A starting base number must be established for each application requiring
MOD numbering. For the examples below, the starting number of 1234
is used. The number can contain more or less digits than shown.

 

For (DR) Divide-Remainder:

Divide the base number by the MOD number of 7.

 

1234 divided by 7 leaves a remainder of 2. The remainder becomes the first check digit placed after the 1234 base number.

 

Dividing the next number, 1235, by 7 leaves a remainder of 3. This remainder becomes the second check digit placed after the 1235 base number, and so on.

 

For (DSR) Divide-Subtract Remainder

Divide the base number by the MOD number of 7.

 

1234 divided by 7 leaves a remainder of 2. The remainder becomes the number to subtract from the MOD number (7), so the first check digit placed after the 1234 base number becomes 5.

 

Dividing the next number, 1235, by 7 leaves a remainder of 3. This remainder becomes the number to subtract from the MOD number (7), so the second check digit placed after the 1235 base number becomes 4, and so on.

Weighted Modulus Numbering

  • A complex system using multipliers of pre-determined numbers to arrive at a control number for each document. The multiplying of a basic number by the corresponding digit of a determined multiplier number (such as 1-2-1-2-1-2) is called a "weighting factor." The process to develop each distinct number may take into consideration a "Sum of the Products" or a "Sum of the Digits" calculation, which is then further factored into a multiplier and divisor calculation.
  • Weighting factors can be simple number configurations such as 1-2-1-23-4-3-41-3-1-3, or any combination so desired by the document owner.
  • Weighted modulus numbers cannot be imprinted from standard mechanical numbering machines used on printing or bindery equipment because these machines cannot perform calculations that produce random numbering sequences. The mechanical numbering machines are limited only to the mechanical rotation of specific numbering sequences. Instead, a variable imaging system with computing capabilities that will allow multiple calculations must be used for providing the calculations and arriving at each control number.
  • A variable imaging system enables the document control number to be verified and fully controlled through a sequence of complex calculations accomplished on computers or calculators.
  • Shown below is an example of weighted MOD numbering sequences and calculations:

Weighted MOD 10

A starting base number must be established for each application requiring
MOD numbering. For the examples below, the starting number of 123570
is used. The number can contain more or less digits than shown.

Weighting Factor = 121212
Modulus Number = 10

For Sum of the Products:

Apply the weighting factor from right to left so that the first digit of the factor (1) is applied to the units digit (0) of the base number. This means that the weighting factor shown below is displayed backward in order to correspond correctly with the base number.

Multiply each digit by the selected weighting factor (121212).

Add 2 + 2 + 6 + 5 + 14 + 0 = 29

If using the DR method, divide the product (29) by the MOD number (10) and use the remainder (9) as the first check digit, and so on.

If using the DSR method, subtract 9 from the MOD number 10 so that the first check digit becomes 1, and so on.

For Sum of the Digits:

Apply the weighting factor from right to left so that the first digit of the factor (1) is applied to the units digit (0) of the base number. This means that the weighting factor shown below is displayed backward in order to correspond correctly with the base number.

Multiply each digit by the selected weighting factor (121212).

Add each of the digits 2 + 2 + 6 + 5 + 1 + 4 + 0 = 20

If using the DR method, divide the product (20) by the MOD number (10) and use the remainder (0) as the first check digit, and so on.

If using the DSR method, subtract 0 from the MOD number 10 so that first check digit becomes 0, and so on.

Information Required for Modulus Numbering Specifications

1.  Numbering method:  MICR, Gothic, OCR, or Bar Code.

2.  Starting and ending number (not including MOD number).

3.  Modulus number system desired: MOD 7, MOD 9, MOD 10, MOD 11, or some other type.

4.  Equipment selection of numbering:

  • Mechanical numbering heads (numbering cannot be weighted).
  • Variable imaging heads (numbering can be weighted).

5.  Control number series: DR or DSR (for unweighted or weighted numbering).

6.  Control number computation method: Sum of digits of Sum of Products (weighted numbering only).

7.  Weighting factor:

8.  Number format:

  • The check digit is placed to the immediate right of the base number.
  • A space is placed between the check digit and the ending digit of the base number.
  • A dash is placed between the check digit and the ending digit of the base number. 

For MOD 11 Numbering Only:

9.  The check digit for 10 prints as:   0/   or   Invalid

10. The check digit for 11 prints as:   0/   or   Invalid

11. An invalid number prints as:   X   or   Void

 

Note: When producing the Weighted MOD 11 DSR numbering sequence and check digit, there will be instances where the calculation results in a duplicate pr invalid 11 with a substitute symbol. In order to indicate this occurrence, the manufacturer will establish the check digit indicator desired by the document owner, such as "0/" or "Invalid". This may produce some invalid numbers throughout the numbered documents, and therefore they require the information in items 9 through 11 (above) to be selected. The documents affected will then have either 0/ or Invalid and a substitute symbol such as "X" or "Void".

 

Security Features

A number of features can be incorporated with numbering to provide security to documents. Two of the most popular are Rainbow numbering and Bleed-through numbering.

  • Rainbow numbering: A special technique that gives the number a rainbow appearance.
  • Bleed-through numbering: A technique in which the numbering ink contains a pink dye that bleeds through the back of the document, 48 hours after production.

Both the rainbow and bleed-through numbering features are most commonly used on checks and other negotiable forms. Click on the links above to see samples. Consult your supplier for availability of these features.

Additional Security Features

 


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