Photoshop is a painting program that allows you to scan and edit continuous
tone images to achieve a desired effect or to create new bitmap images. Photoshop
integrates the Photoshop software with that of ImageReady. ImageReady is no
longer sold as a separate software package. The integration of ImageReady
with Photoshop now makes it possible to produce images for the Web as well
as for printed media. You can go back and forth between traditional Photoshop
features and ImageReady features without losing any settings or properties
you have established in either one. It works easily with other Adobe programs
such as Illustrator or InDesign and it can be used on either Macintosh or
Organizing and Selecting
Photoshop utilizes multiple layers which makes it easier to design and edit
your image. The layers can consist of components of one image or the layers
can contain several different images. Using layers can make your work more
efficient because it can be easier to edit and manipulate images that are
not all on one layer. Special effects can be added to objects on these layers
such as automatic drop shadows, bevels, glowing effects, and you can change
the opacity mode and the transparency of the layers in order to create collages.
A drag and drop feature makes it easier to combine items from different layers
or different files, and there are commands for automatically aligning and
distributing multiple layers.
In order to edit an image or a part of an image on these layers, you must
select it first. The area you have selected will be indicated by a dotted
line around the area. The items listed below show some tools that you can
use to select specific areas of an image.
- Lasso Tool/Polygonal Lasso Tool - With these tools you can draw freehand
and straight edge borders around objects to select them.
- Marquee Tool - You can select a rectangular or elliptical area on your
image. You can then invert it and delete everything outside of the shape
to achieve the effect shown below.
- Magnetic Lasso - This is the same as the other lasso tools except that
the border that you have drawn will snap to the edges of the defined area
of the image. This is very useful when you want to select an object with
a complex shape.
- Magic Wand - This tool allows you to choose pixels on an image with colors
that are within a color range that you can select.
Drawing and Painting
Drawing objects in Photoshop is made easier with several drawing tools. You
can use the pen tool to draw objects or paths. If you click the mouse
on the path, you can make anchor points on the path or click and drag to create
a bezier curve. Anchor points are used to define the shape of the path. You
can manipulate the anchor points to change the shape of the path. The paths
that you draw can be closed, such as a circle, or an open path which has a
beginning and end such as a straight line. You can also use the line tool
to draw straight lines on an image and you can change the thickness of the
lines and the appearance of the starting and ending points, such as applying
If you want to draw a freeform path around an existing object, you can use
the magnetic pen tool. The path will snap to the edges of the object in the
areas where you are drawing the path. This works much the same as the magnetic
lasso tool except that the magnetic lasso tool is for selecting an area and
the magnetic pen is used for drawing a path.
The magnetic pen tool allows you to draw a path around
an existing image and the path will snap to the edges of the area
you are tracing. You will have to experiment with the settings to
get the best result. Save the path and you can select it at any time
to make it a selection.
With the painting tools, you can modify pixels in an existing image to create
different colors in areas, or you can create your own colored objects. Listed
below are some useful tools.
- Paintbrush Tool - Produce strokes of color.
- Airbrush Tool - You can apply gradual tones of color to images that simulate
an airbrush technique. You can hold down the mouse button to spray the paint.
The amount of paint applied depends on how quickly you move the mouse. If
you keep the mouse in one spot and hold the button down, you will gradually
build up the color.
- Pencil Tool - You can create freehand lines which have a hard edge.
- Eraser Tool - This is a type of painting tool that removes pixels from
an image instead of applying color to an area. The pixels selected with
this tool can be changed to transparent or they can be made to look like
the background color.
- Art History Brush - This tool changes an image into brush strokes to produce
the effect of a painting.
There is a brushes palette where you can choose the size and shape of the
brush stroke that you want to use for a selected painting tool. You can also
make your own custom brush shapes selected from parts of images.
There are gradient tools to enable you to do gradual blends of color or to
make colors fade in and out. The different types of gradient tools that you
can use are:
You can edit the gradients by changing the following
- You can change the starting and ending colors of the gradient.
- You can move the midpoint of the gradient, which is the point
where the gradient mix is even.
- You can move the start and end points of the gradient.
- Intermediate colors can be added to the gradient.
To enter text with Photoshop, just select a type tool and then click on your
image in order to insert a starting point for the text. The text will automatically
be saved on a new layer that can be edited anytime. The font and size can
be changed, the color, the leading, kerning, tracking, and more.
Painting and image editing programs like Photoshop, create type characters
with bitmap images, unlike programs such as Illustrator which creates outline
type with vector graphics. If bitmap text is scaled up to a much larger size,
the characters may have a jagged appearance. Photoshop has an "anti-aliasing"
feature which helps reduce this effect. Aliased type reveals the jagged or
stair step effect, especially at lower resolutions. Anti-aliasing partially
fills in or blurs hard edges, to help make the edges on text characters appear
to be smoother like those of outline type. If anti-aliasing is used on very
small fonts or point sizes, the resulting text can look blurry and be very
difficult to read.
The "V" in the outlined box
has been enlarged to show the concept of aliasing. The enlarged bitmap
letter shows how the pixels produce a jagged appearance.
When anti-aliasing is applied to the
enlarged letter, a smoother appearance is achieved.
There are many other effects and properties that can be applied to images
to modify their original appearance. Listed below are a sampling of some of
- Photoshop comes with more than 95 special effects filters. Some of these
are image sharpening, distortion, softening, dust and scratch removal, drop
shadows, and bevels.
- Images or parts of images can be skewed, distorted, rotated, scaled, and
- You can apply 3-D effects to images.
- The smudge tool gives that effect to any part or all of an image. The
sharpen tool brings an object more into focus and the blur tool softens
the edges of an image so the amount of detail in the original is reduced.
- There are many third party filters and plug-ins that you can purchase
to add more effects to Photoshop.
Photoshop offers tools for editing and correcting the color of your image.
There are adjustments for brightness, contrast, and highlights, shadows, and
midtones. You can also adjust the value of individual colors in an image.
The "Replace Color" feature allows you to correct the color of any
selected area of your image.
Any adjustments you make to the color of an image will affect the overall
color balance of the image. Changing one color component affects the other
color components. For example, increasing the amount of one color in an image,
will decrease the amount of that color's opposite or complimentary color.
You can achieve a general color correction without having to worry about getting
too much of one color by using the "Color Balance" control.
The following color models are available in Photoshop:
- RGB mode - Red, Green, and Blue, or
additive color, for use on the Web.
- CMYK mode - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black. The CMY are the basis
of the subtractive
color process and the addition of Black (K) allows for accurate
color reproduction for printed media.
- HSB - Hue, Saturation, and Brightness. This color model best describes
the human perception of color. Hue refers to the name of the color and is
expressed as a degree, 0° to 360°, which specifies its location
on the color wheel. Saturation is the strength of the color, or the amount
of gray in relation to the color. Brightness is the lightness or darkness
of a color. Both saturation and brightness are expressed as percentages.
- Lab - The "L" in Lab represents the luminance or lightness
component, the "a" represents the green to red component, and
the "b" represents the blue to yellow component.
There are also specialized color modes available in Photoshop including Bitmap,
Grayscale, Indexed, Multi-channel, and Duotone.
Photoshop also allows you to edit your images in CMYK mode for color printing.
You can view a preliminary proof of the image before printing. Color separations
can be produced for color printing and printed output can be adjusted for
different paper stocks and printing equipment.
There are many features in Photoshop to help you with your Web publishing
tasks. Some of these features are within the ImageReady 2.0 portion only,
and others are in both Photoshop and ImageReady. Listed below are some of
- You can view as many as four versions of the same image at one time with
the "Save for Web" command, to make a comparison of the file size
and quality of each version of the image.
- You can use any Web browser to check how your image will look.
- Dithering between different browsers and color shifting between Windows
and Macintosh platforms is always a concern, so these effects can be observed
during the design process. You can decide to edit colors to make them compatible
with all browsers.
- With the ImageReady tools, you can transform a layered Photoshop file
into an animated GIF.
- The ImageReady tools create HTML code for your files when you are ready
to export them.
- Image maps, buttons, banners, and navigation bars can be easily created.
- You can import QuickTime™ movies to produce ImageReady animations.
- The ImageReady "Slice Tool" allows you to split a multi-layered
image into sections and use file formats and compression techniques that
are best suited for each area. This helps in achieving a faster loading
time for your files.
Photoshop offers support for compatible file formats for Macintosh and Windows
platforms. There is support for GIF, JPEG, PNG, and PDF Web publishing file
formats and there is also support for graphics file formats for print publishing
such as EPS, TIFF, and others.
System software 7.6 or later.
64 MB of application hard disk space.
96 MB or more of application hard disk space in
order to operate both Photoshop and ImageReady at the same time.
125 MB of available hard disk space.
Large capacity hard disk.
Color monitor with 256 colors (8-bit color).
Intel Pentium processor or faster.
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, or later
64 MB of RAM installed.
96 MB or more of RAM in order to operate both Photoshop
and ImageReady at the same time.
125 MB of available hard disk space.
Large capacity hard disk.
Color monitor with 256 colors (8-bit color).
* A sound card is recommended for viewing interactive
Back to Top