Knowledge - PrintingTips.com
Types of Paper

Paper types can be classified using a number of differing criteria, but most papers used in the printing industry fall into two classifications: groundwood and freesheet.

  • Groundwood

    Paper stocks are classified as groundwood when they contain more than 10% of their pulp produced from a mechanical process that grinds wood into pulp. The cellulose in the wood is the major ingredient of the pulp, but because all of the wood is used, other ingredients such as lignin and resins become part of the pulp as well. The lignin is what causes groundwood stocks to yellow quickly and become brittle, so they are good choices for non-permanent printed items such as newspapers. In addition to this, the wood grinding process produces a pulp with very short fibers so the resulting paper has a low tear strength. Groundwood stocks are less bright and less permanent than paper produced from chemical pulp. Chemical fibers are added to many groundwood stocks to give them added strength.

  • Freesheet

    Freesheet refers to paper that is free of pulp produced from a mechanical grinding process. Chemicals, rather than grinding, are used to reduce the pulp to fibers. Wood chips are cooked in chemical baths which remove the undesirable ingredients such as lignin and resins. Most of the cellulose remains, resulting in fibers that are longer, stronger, and cleaner which produces paper that is brighter and much more permanent than groundwood stocks.

Both groundwood and freesheet paper types can be separated into uncoated and coated stock subcategories.

  • Uncoated Stocks

    Uncoated stock is paper that has no coated pigment applied to reduce the absorbency or increase the smoothness. The uncoated finishes can be described as vellum, antique, wove, or smooth.

  • Coated Stocks

    A coated stock has a surface coating that has been applied to make the surface more receptive for the reproduction of text and images in order to achieve sharper detail and improved color density. By adding a coated clay pigment, the objective of coating the stock is to improve the smoothness and reduce the absorbency. Coated paper finishes can be categorized as matte, dull, cast, gloss, and high gloss. The coating can be on both sides of the stock (coated two sides, "C2S") or on one side only (coated one side, "C1S"). Coatings added to groundwood papers give them a greater degree of permanency and the natural tendency for goundwood papers to yellow is reduced.

From the classifications and subcategories, paper stocks are then separated into types, such as offset, bond, cover, index, and vellum bristol.


Uncoated - Commercial Printing Papers

Type of Paper

Popular Colors

Popular Weights

Uses

Offset

White, Ivory, Cream

50, 60, 70,
80, 100 lb.

Business Forms, Flyers, Books, Mailers

Vellum Bristol

White and Color

57, 67,
100, 120 lb.

Mailers, Posters, Advertising

Ledger

White, Buff, Greentint

24, 28,
32, 36 lb.

Business Forms, File Tabs, Records, Etc.

Cover

White and Color

50, 60, 65, 80, 90, 100, 130 lb.

Booklet Covers, Mailers, Menus, Posters

Index

White and Colors

90, 100, 140, 170, 200 lb.

Record Cards, Tab Folders, Booklets

Tag

White & Manila

100, 125,
150 lb.

Business Forms, Work Tags, Covers, Posters

Railroad Board

White and Colors

4, 6, 8 Ply

Covers, Posters

Reply Card

White

75 lb.

Reply Mail, Mailers

Forms Bond

White, Canary, Pink, Green, Gold, Blue, Buff, Gray

15, 20, 24 lb.

Business Forms (invoices, statements) Stationery, Flyers - an all purpose paper

Laser Bon

White

20, 24 lb.

Laser printed Forms, Mailers, Stationery

OCR Bond

White

20, 24 lb.

Scannable Documents

MICR Bond

White

24 lb.

Checks, Numbered Documents

Safety Bond

White, Canary, Pink, Green, Blue, Gray

24 lb.

Checks

Carbonless CB

White, Canary, Pink, Green, Gold, Blue

15, 20,
24, 33 lb.

Business Forms (invoices, statements, Hospital Forms, etc.)

Carbonless CFB

White, Canary, Pink, Green, Gold, Blue

12.5, 14, 17 lb.

Business Forms (invoices, statements, Hospital Forms, etc.)

Carbonless CF

White, Canary, Pink, Green, Gold, Blue

15, 20, 27,
33, 105 lb.

Business Forms (invoices, statements, Hospital Forms, etc.)

Newsprint

White

30, 33 lb.

Newspapers

Kraft

White, Tan, Gray

20, 28, 30,
35, 40, 50,
57, 60, 70 lb.

Packaging, Shipping, Envelopes

 
Coated - Commercial Printing Papers

Type of Paper

Popular Colors

Popular Weights

Uses

Offset

Bright White

50, 60, 70,
80, 90, 100 lb.

Brochures, Folders, Magazines

Cover

Bright White

60, 80, 100 lb.

Covers, Advertising, Calendars

 
Fine Papers

Type

Popular Colors

Popular Weights

Uses

Text

White and Colors

60, 70, 80 lb.

Booklets, Annual Reports, Books, High Quality Applications

Cover

White and Colors

50, 60, 65, 80, 90, 100, 130 lb.

Booklet Covers,
Menus, Posters

Writing

White, Natural White, Ivory

20, 24 lb.

Stationery

25% & 100%
Cotton Bond

White

20, 24 lb.

Stationery, Deeds,
Legal Documents

No. 1 Bond
Watermarked

White

20, 24 lb.

Stationery, Deeds,
Legal Documents

 
Specialty Papers

Type of Paper

Popular Colors

Popular Weights

Uses

Dry Gum Label

White

20 lb.

Labels

Pressure
Sensitive Label

White, Colors, Fluorescent

50, 60 lb.

Labels and Stickers

Digital Imaging

White and
Bright White

20, 24, 28, 32, 50, 60, and 70 lb.

Brochures, Newsletters, Reports, Manuals, Magazines,
Folders, Cards

 
Office and Consumer Papers

Type of Paper

Popular Colors

Popular Weights

Uses

Laser Bond

White

20, 24 lb.

Laser printed Forms
and Stationery

Xerographic

White

20, 24 lb.

Copiers and Printers

 


Back to Top

More Paper >>
Search
Enter keywords to search
PrintingTips.Com Knowledge
Print Preparation
Bar Coding
Finishing
Materials
Paper
Characteristics
Conditioning
Grades
Recycling
Suppliers
Inks and Coatings
PDF
Postal
Prepress
Print Processes
Security Features
Tools
Print Products
Features of Interest
Featured Ad
Terms of Use |  Privacy Policy |  Site Map |  Index |  Contact Us
Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is strictly prohibited.
Copyright 2014 Tecstra Systems, All Rights Reserved, PrintingTips.Com

Knowledge and printing advice brought to you by PrintingTips.com

Printing Tips Home Customer Service Knowledge Glossary Printing Tips Home